Bladder Infection

Information on the causes and symptoms of bladder infections

Info on Bladder Infections or Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

Select a Topic

  1. What is a Bladder Infection?
  2. Symptoms of Bladder Infections
  3. What Causes a Bladder Infection?
  4. Bladder Infections During Conception & Pregnancy

What is a Bladder Infection?

A bladder infection is also known as cystitis, and is commonly referred to as a urinary tract infection (UTI). When bacteria enters the urinary tract via the urethra, sometimes it moves up into the bladder, where it can multiply and cause an infection.

Although generally very uncomfortable, treating a bladder infection is not difficult. Most bladder infections or UTI’s are caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli (E.coli).

Types of Bladder Infection

There are two main types of urinary tract infections: lower tract and upper tract infections. An infection found in the lower tract involves the urethra and/or the bladder. Infection of the urethra (tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside) is called urethritis, while infection of the bladder is called cystitis.

Upper tract infections involve the kidneys and can be caused either by bacteria entering the kidneys from the bloodstream or by bacteria ascending up from the bladder via the ureters to the kidneys. An infection of the kidneys is known as pyelonephritis, and this is a serious medical condition.

Diagnosing a Bladder Infection

The doctor will perform a physical examination, check the patient’s medical history, and inquire about symptoms presented. During the physical examination, the doctor may examine the patient’s pelvic area, abdomen and lower back to determine whether the bladder or kidney is enlarged

Tests to Diagnose Bladder Infection

  • Urine test by using a dipstick in the urine sample
  • By urine culture where a specimen is sent to the laboratory to grow and identify the causative bacteria
  • Ultrasound scan

Symptoms of Bladder Infections


The signs and symptoms of bladder infections include:

  • Fatigue and Shakiness
  • Pain above the pubic bone
  • Bladder spasms
  • Cramps
  • Delirium
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Spotting
  • Discomfort or Pressure in the lower back or abdomen
  • Nausea
  • Urgent need to urinate
  • Frequent urination
  • Burning or pain during urination (Dysuria)
  • Cloudy, bloody, or foul-smelling urine
  • Mild fever

What Causes a Bladder Infection?

The most common cause of bladder infections is infection by bacteria which have spread from the rectal area into the urethra. Approximately 80% of bladder infections are caused by Escherichia coli (E.coli). Other bacteria that may also cause bladder infection include Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Proteus species.

Contributing Causes of Bladder Infection

  • Stress
  • The short urethra in women makes them more prone to developing infections
  • Sexual intercourse
  • Use of a diaphragm for birth control
  • Inadequate personal hygiene
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Enlarged prostate in men
  • Pregnancy
  • Medical conditions such as diabetes or HIV
  • Weakened immune system

Bladder Infections During Conception and Pregnancy

Unfortunately, bladder infections are very prevalent in women, especially after sexual intercourse. When a woman is trying to conceive, the frequency of intercourse may even double, making it that much easier for the bladder to become infected. Having sexual intercourse while dealing with a bladder infection, will only make the problem worse. Most of the time, a bladder infection begins with an untreated urinary tract infection. Having sex when you have a UTI will most likely lead to more complications, irritation and pain.

It is common for pregnant women to get a bladder infection. A pregnant woman who suffers with a bladder infection is also more likely to have it spread into the kidneys, due to the frequent hormonal changes and shifts in the position of the urinary tract. When these changes occur it is easy for bacteria to travel up the urethra to the kidneys. Pregnant women, who ignore the symptoms of a bladder infection, may result in premature delivery, plus other risks such as high blood pressure.

Help for Bladder Infections

The symptoms of bladder infections can be alleviated with a number of effective treatment options including drug therapy or complementary therapy. Certain preventative measures can also help to reduce symptoms.

Drug Therapy

  • Over-the-counter drugs such as painkillers, anti-inflammatories or antispasmodics are commonly prescribed to relieve pain and discomfort.
  • Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat the infection.

It is important to note that treating a bladder infection with antibiotics may contribute to recurring bladder infections, and continued antibiotic use weakens the immune system. Antibiotic use is also associated with an increased risk of developing thrush and other yeast infections. Pregnant women should consult their doctor or pharmacist before taking any medication.

Tips to Help Prevent Bladder Infection

  • Drink plenty of water, at least eight glasses a day, to flush out your system
  • Do not resist the urge to urinate
  • When visiting the bathroom, women should wipe from front to back after urinating
  • Avoid using products that may irritate the genital area such as scented soap, bubble bath, talc or spray
  • Wear cotton instead of nylon underwear
  • Avoid wearing tight jeans or trousers and wet swimsuits
  • Wash before and after sexual intercourse
  • Change tampons and sanitary towels frequently when menstruating
  • Drink lots of pure cranberry juice
  • Avoid excessive caffeine and sugar in the diet
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