Practically the same drugs and antibiotics that are used for treating UTI in humans are used for treating urinary tract infections in cats. Amoxicillin is semi synthetic oral penicillin that is used for treating bacterial infections and is one of the primary antibiotics indicated for treating feline urinary tract infection.
As is widely known, antibiotics should be used only when they cannot be avoided as they are liable to become ineffective over time and with overuse. It is necessary that proper information be gathered about the drug before it is used to treat urinary infection in cats. For veterinarian use, amoxicillin is available in the 100mg dose as amoxicillin trihydrate. It works by inhibiting the biosynthesis of large structural molecules in the cell walls of bacteria. It is indicated in the treatment of cystitis, urethritis and genitourinary tract infections along with infections of the upper and lower respiratory tracts.
The hypersensitivity reaction to the injection of penicillin is well known and amoxicillin infections can also result in similar reactions. Such hypersensitivity can even be fatal at times. Since there are no skin or patch tests that can be done before taking the medicine orally or otherwise, extreme care is required when it is being administered for the first time.
Even though patients with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens are more vulnerable, the reaction can happen to anyone. An allergic reaction may present itself in the shape of salivation, shivering, vomiting and itchy skin eruptions. In the event of an allergic reaction, the antibiotic should be discontinued immediately and a new appropriate therapy should be adopted. Serious allergic reactions require immediate treatment with epinephrine to stimulate the autonomic nerve reaction.
On the positive side, amoxicillin remains stable in the presence of gastric acids and can be safely given with feed. The drug diffuses quickly into the body tissues and fluids even on oral digestion.
The dosage of amoxicillin depends on the weight of the cat. The recommended dosage is quarter of a tablet (25mg) for a cat weighing less than 2.25 kg and half a tablet (50 mg) for those weighing between 2.25 to 4.5 kg. A full tablet is prescribed for heavier cats. After daily administration for 5 to 7 days, the drug should be continued for another couple of days till the symptoms of the urinary tract infection subside completely.
For instances of severe urinary tract infection in dogs and cats, a higher concentration of the drug is required. In such cases, the dosage is invariably doubled. However, care needs to be taken to avoid an overdose.
Even though there are no absolute side effects that have been observed in unborn kittens, the benefits of the drug need to be weighed against the possible threat to the fetus when administering the antibiotic to a pregnant cat.